Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience1
Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience1

NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience1

Having a strong knowledge in foundational neuroscience is a bonus for a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner. In order to diagnose and treat clients, you must not only understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, but also how medications for these disorders impact the central nervous system. These concepts of foundational neuroscience can be challenging to understand. Therefore, this Discussion is designed to encourage you to think through these concepts, develop a rationale for your thinking, and deepen your understanding by interacting with your colleagues.

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Learning Objectives

Students will: Analyze the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents Compare the actions of g couple proteins to ion gated channels Analyze the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action Analyze the impact of foundational neuroscience on the prescription of medications

Learning Resources for NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience1

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus. Required Readings Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library.

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

As a psychiatric nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to have a strong background in foundational neuroscience. In order to diagnose and treat patients, you must not only understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders but also how medications for these disorders impact the central

NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience1

nervous system. These concepts of foundational neuroscience can be challenging to understand. Therefore, this Discussion is designed to encourage you to think through these concepts, develop a rationale for your thinking, and deepen your understanding by interacting with your colleagues.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Cultura RF

For this Discussion, review the Learning Resources for NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience1 and reflect on the concepts of foundational neuroscience as they might apply to your role as the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner in prescribing medications for patients.

By Day 3 of Week 2 of NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience1

Post a response to each of the following for NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience1:

Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents, including how partial and inverse agonist functionality may impact the efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatments.

Agonist-to-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Pharmacological Agents

Agonists are ligands that stimulate a binding site and cause a physiological reaction. Antagonists, on the other hand, are ligands that impede agonist-mediated reactions instead of inducing a physiological reaction by attaching themselves (AegisShield, 2015).  Agonists come in a variety of forms, each of which is evaluated against a natural agonist found in the human body that attaches to the same receptors. Dopamine, for instance, is the natural ligand for dopamine brain receptors, although several other medications also connect to these receptors.

With several ligands, receptors, biological channels, and genetic variabilities to choose from, medical researchers, pharmacists, and other key players in the pharmaceutical industry have spent years developing a wide range of therapeutic agents and therapies for illnesses and ailments in an attempt to discover the ones that function optimally for individuals (Butterworth, Mackey & Wasnick, 2020). It’s clear to see that people have several choices when it comes to treatments, and why it’s critical to review all drugs and nutritional supplements items with their doctor.

Both agonist and antagonist pathways are present in drugs. As mentioned, agonists are compounds that attach to specific receptors and change their activity to trigger a response. On the opposite, antagonists are compounds that connect to receptors but do not cause them to respond in any way (Stahl Online, 2021). When an antagonist attaches to a binding site, it decreases the agonist’s binding spaces, consequently lowering the agonist’s effects. When the agonist’s quantity is boosted, its activity rises, and the antagonist’s regulatory function weakens. In contrast to certain other agonists that enhance binding site function, inverse agonists decrease receptor function and produce mild or intense partial agonists.

Correspondingly, the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), also known as seven transmembrane receptors, are a broad protein family that binds to external molecules and is found on the cellular walls. Transmissions from external substances are subsequently transmitted to the G protein in the internal area of the cell through the receptors (Stahl Online, 2021). GPCR activation causes physical responses such as higher cardiac output and pupil dilation. Ion gated pathways, on the other end, are openings in the cell membrane that let things move into and out of the cells.

Epigenetics is the study of genetic data focused on determining how the whole genome functions. In pharmacological studies, epigenetics aids researchers in addressing disorders as a whole instead of as a result of interactions with numerous medications (Guerrero-Bosagna, 2016). Scholars and researchers can better grasp the consistent and appropriate medications and doses for various individuals by knowing the epigenetics of an illness. They can then disprove the concept that “one medication fits all.” Prior to actually prescribing a medication, they take into account dose parameters including age, body mass, nourishment, and contraindications.

Studying phamarco-epigenetics and pharmacological antagonism/agonism is critical since it aids doctors in determining the short and the long-term effectiveness of various treatments. The early and rapid introduction of therapeutic substances is one of the most important factors in improving outcomes in patients. Nevertheless, caution must be exercised to prevent prescribing the incorrect medications (Ciccone, Duffield & DeChambeau, 2016). Prior to actually prescribing benzodiazepines, for example, the practitioner must evaluate the drug’s detrimental consequences, mode of action, half-life, and metabolic activity. This knowledge is crucial because it allows the practitioner to determine when to reduce or cease medication for optimal result.

In order to answer NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience1, Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.

G couple proteins are by far the most common membrane complexes in the human genetic code, and they are triggered by a wide range of ligands with different structures. They are made up of seven distinct protein components that traverse the cell wall seven times and send out impulses for neurotransmitter signalling pathways. This will enable remedial medication operations to take place. When medicines bind to these binding sites, neurotransmitters are blocked completely or partially (Ciccone, Duffield & DeChambeau, 2016). The medication activities can eventually alter the molecular modifications, causing variations in the activation or inactivation of phosphoproteins, or determining which enzymatic reactions, receptors, or signalling pathways are altered by neurotransmission.

Electrical control is used to regulate ion gated pathways. G -Couple proteins, contrary to ions, can permeate past the cell wall and modify a cell’s functionality, whereas ions cannot because of their polarity. Ion gated channels regulate the flow of information into or out of neurons. They can be activated by neurotransmitters or electric charges, depending on the type of ion channel. G coupling proteins and ion gated pathways are two categories of protein receptors that attach to a chemical and are buried in cell walls (Stahl & Cambridge University Press, 2013). Unlike pharmaceuticals that engage g protein-linked receptor domains, which take a longer time to develop an impact, medication that modify the passage of ions can have a therapeutic effect.

Explain how the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacologic action.

Epigenetics is the analysis of how DNA connects with the myriad of minor compounds that can trigger or suppress genes within cells. Nutrition, contact with chemicals, and medicine can all affect epigenetic alterations, which are a common component of development. The epigenetic alterations that arise can ultimately contribute to illness (Kenakin, 2019). They may, for instance, switch off a gene that produces a tumour-suppressing enzyme, but there are drug categories that alter epigenetic pathways to treat illness in humans.

Epigenetic alterations, on the other hand, are not always irreversible, and a healthy living which incorporates a good diet, exercising, and minimizing pollutants may result in a balanced epigenome in the long term (Kenakin, 2019). Understanding epigenetics should help researchers better understand the causes of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, psychological problems, dependence, and a variety of other diseases.

Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to patients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a patient in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.

To appropriately administer pharmaceuticals and evaluate their impacts on patients, clinicians should grasp the ideas and mechanisms of drug function, and targeted usage, drug activity, and adverse reactions must be extensively communicated to each patient (Stahl, 2008). Because most psychiatry medicines have profound impacts on the central nervous system, understanding the mode of action is critical for effectiveness and safety.

Clozapine, for example, is an atypical antipsychotic medicine used to manage schizophrenic conditions that are unresponsive to treatments (Medicine Net, 2016). Because of the increased danger of agranulocytosis, people taking clozapine must be closely monitored, which would include having their number of white blood cells monitored. Additional side effects of clozapine are numerous, including myocarditis, tachycardia, bowel problems, orthostatic low blood pressure, seizure, neuroleptic malignant disease, anticholinergic implications, and tardive dyskinesia.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6 of Week 2 of NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience1

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one of the following ways:

If your colleagues’ posts influenced your understanding of these concepts, be sure to share how and why. Include additional insights you gained.
If you think your colleagues might have misunderstood these concepts, offer your alternative perspective and be sure to provide an explanation for them. Include resources to support your perspective.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience1

Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear. Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press *Preface, pp. ix–x Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter. Chapter 1, “Chemical Neurotransmission” Chapter 2, “Transporters, Receptors, and Enzymes as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action” Chapter 3, “Ion Channels as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action” Document: Midterm Exam Study Guide (PDF) Document: Final Exam Study Guide (PDF) Required Media Laureate Education (Producer). (2016i). Introduction to psychopharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author. Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 3 minutes. Accessible player Optional Resources Laureate Education (Producer). (2009). Pathopharmacology: Disorders of the nervous system: Exploring the human brain [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
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Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience1

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience1

Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

 

LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.

Communication

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me: 
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Name: NURS_6630_Week2_Discussion_Rubric for NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience1

Main Posting:

Response to the Discussion question is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

Thoroughly responds to the Discussion question(s).

Is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

No less than 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three current credible sources.

35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to most of the Discussion question(s).

Is somewhat reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

50% of the post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible references.

31 (31%) – 34 (34%)

Responds to some of the Discussion question(s).

One to two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with fewer than two credible references.

0 (0%) – 30 (30%)

Does not respond to the Discussion question(s).

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible references.

Main Posting:

Writing

6 (6%) – 6 (6%)

Written clearly and concisely.

Contains no grammatical or spelling errors.

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Written concisely.

May contain one to two grammatical or spelling errors.

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Written somewhat concisely.

May contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.

0 (0%) – 3 (3%)

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Main Posting:

Timely and full participation

9 (9%) – 10 (10%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts main Discussion by due date.

8 (8%) – 8 (8%)

Posts main Discussion by due date.

Meets requirements for full participation.

7 (7%) – 7 (7%)

Posts main Discussion by due date.

0 (0%) – 6 (6%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post main Discussion by due date.

First Response:

Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.

9 (9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

8 (8%) – 8 (8%)

Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.

7 (7%) – 7 (7%)

Response is on topic, may have some depth.

0 (0%) – 6 (6%)

Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.

First Response:

Writing

6 (6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.

5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited.

0 (0%) – 3 (3%)

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

First Response:

Timely and full participation

5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date.

3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Posts by due date.

0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post by due date.

Second Response:

Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.

9 (9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

8 (8%) – 8 (8%)

Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.

7 (7%) – 7 (7%)

Response is on topic, may have some depth.

0 (0%) – 6 (6%)

Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.

Second Response:

Writing

6 (6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.

5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited.

0 (0%) – 3 (3%)

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Second Response:

Timely and full participation

5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date.

3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Posts by due date.

0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post by due date.

Total Points: 100

Name: NURS_6630_Week2_Discussion_Rubric

 

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