Variables in A Research Study and Data Collection Discussion

Variables in A Research Study and Data Collection Discussion

Variables in A Research Study and Data Collection Discussion

Variables in a Research Study and Data Collection
Select one of the articles listed below to review.

Course Content Related to Chronic Wounds in Nursing Degree Programs in Spain (upload file)

Health Empowerment among Immigrant Women in Transnational Marriages in Taiwan (upload file)

Post your initial response to the article, addressing the following criteria:
Read the process for data collection employed in the study.
Identify the method used in the study.
Provide a list of the tasks performed as part of data collection in the study, add comments as needed.
Draw conclusions about the data collection process.
Enter your responses in the organizer. (upload file)

The growing number of immigrant women has become a significant global concern in the social and public
health sectors. According to the United Nations’ Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
(2009), immigrant women may not only be subject to
sex discrimination in their receiving country but also face
specific health challenges. Indeed, one of the primary
goals outlined in Healthy People 2020 is to eliminate
health disparities among different segments of vulnerable populations, such as immigrants (U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services, 2013). Studies showed that
immigrant women in Taiwan not only tended to be more
vulnerable to illness but also experienced more barriers
to their health care than nonimmigrants. A cross-cultural
comparison indicated that Vietnamese immigrant women
in Taiwan had a generally lower health-related quality
of life than native Taiwanese women (Yang & Wang,
2011a). Lin and Wang (2008) investigated Southeast
Asian pregnant immigrant women and found they had
irregular prenatal examination behavior.

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Immigration is a stressful, unexpected life event in
which immigrants experience a complicated process of
re-adaptation in the host society (Meleis & Lipson, 2004).
To cope with the challenges of living in a new country, marriage migrant women in Taiwan are also vulnerable to psychological distress, which can negatively impact
their health and well-being (Yang, Wang, & Anderson,
2010). Moreover, greater acculturative stress increases
the risk for developing psychological problems, particularly in the initial months of immigrating to the new
host society (Berry, 1997). The lack of true friendships,
personal relationships, and social support in their host
country intensifies their loneliness and social isolation
(Yang & Wang, 2011b).
Marriage migrant women’s marginalized status and difficulties in accessing adequate health care indicate a lack
of empowerment to effectively seek the resources they
need to improve their health and well-being. Shearer
(2007) asserted that health empowerment may increase
one’s awareness in health and one’s own healthcare
decisions. Ensuring health empowerment among marriage migrant women may improve their ability to access
health care, achieve better health, and overcome their
marginalized status in their receiving country. The aim
of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a
theory-based intervention designed to promote increased
health empowerment for marriage migrant women in
Design and Theoretical Framework
Action research is an interactive research process that
equalizes problem-solving actions implemented in a collaborative framework with data-driven analysis or an inquiry to understand underlying causes enabling future
expectations about personal and organizational change
(McNiff, 2013). Participatory action research (PAR) is
based on critical social theory; it is conducted to realize
and transform the world, collaboratively and reflectively
(Reason & Bradbury, 2008).
PAR was used to develop the intervention of this
health empowerment project (HEP). The bottom-up
approach of PAR was chosen as the most appropriate
method to develop and evaluate an intervention program
designed to empower an especially marginalized and
oppressed population (Minkler & Wallerstein, 2010).
Previous researchers have documented PAR as an
empowerment-based inquiry methodology that bridges
the gaps between knowledge and daily lives and equalizes the power between researcher and participants (Tapp
& Dulin, 2010). It promotes the research participants’
ability to identify their own problems, make their own
priorities, handle their own solutions, and control their
own progress. In addition, Etowa, Bernard, Oyinsan, and
Chow (2007) considered PAR a user-friendly framework
for community-based inquiry and provided the model for
researchers and community members to work together
to identify problems, take action, and achieve the goal.
The essential elements of PAR are collaboration, participation, and reflection, which take place during multiple
cycles of planning, acting, and reviewing (Koshy, 2005).