NUR 606 Week 7 Discussion 1: Develop Visual Aid/Educational Presentation

NUR 606 Week 7 Discussion 1: Develop Visual Aid/Educational Presentation

NUR 606 Week 7 Discussion 1: Develop Visual Aid/Educational Presentation
1. Explain what stroke volume is and how it is related to the cardiovascular system; address, particularly, stroke volume, heart rate, and blood pressure.
Stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected from each ventricle with each contraction (VanMeter & Huber, 2018). Cardiac output is affected by stroke volume and HR CO= HR x SV. Any changes in heart and stroke volume will change cardiac output. Stroke volume is the measure of contractility of the heart rate based on the end diastolic volume which is described as SV=EDV-ESV (end systolic volume). Blood pressure depends on cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance. When the stroke volume decreases it decreases the amount of blood in the arterial system which decreases diastolic blood pressure and when this occurs the heart is decreased and stroke volume increases to sustain cardiac output (Boundless, n.d.).

Identify two disorders of the cardiovascular system that affect stroke volume, heart rate, and BP, and explain how the disease state and pathophysiologic process alters these components away from their homeostatic state.

Two disorders of the cardiovascular system that affect stroke volume, heart rate and blood pressure are congestive heart failure and congenital defects such as Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD).

Congestive heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the needs of the body (VanMeter & Huber, 2018). In CHF, the cardiac output and stroke volume decreases, and this results in less blood flow to the organs and tissues. Compensation occurs with increased HR. CHF is frequently caused by chronic elevated blood pressure, hypertension.

 

 

Brown. (n.d.).

Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) is the most common congenital heart defect and is an opening in the interventricular septum (VanMeter & Huber, 2018). Small openings do not affect cardiac function, but large openings allow a left to right shunt (left ventricle to right ventricle) which leaves less blood in the left ventricle decreasing the stroke volume and cardiac output. As a compensatory method to decreased SV, an increase in HR occurs. With the decreased stroke volume comes decreased blood volume (decreased blood pressure).


Children’s Heart Federation. (2018).

3. Describe how these changes can result in cardiac remodeling. What signs and symptoms do patients experience as this occurs?

 

Cardiac remodeling is defined as a group of changes that consist of molecular, cellular and interstitial changes that usually changes size, mass and function of the heart after injury and results in a poor prognosis with ventricular dysfunction and arrythmias (Azevedo, et al., 2016).  It is the replacement of necrotic heart tissue with scar tissue and can result in severe ventricular arrythmias due to the prolonged QT intervals after the increased collagen fibers which disrupt electrical impulses. With ventricular dysthymias a patient may exhibits some symptoms such as lightheadedness, dizziness or dyspnea and some signs would be syncope, decreased blood pressure and ventricular rhythms on the monitor (V-tach or V-fib).

Azevedo et al. (2021).

4. Discuss whether this remodeling is reversible and/or preventable. What can be done to correct the pathologic process and return the cardiovascular system to its homeostatic state.

Cardiac remodeling occurs after an infarct of heart issue like an MI. According to VanMeter & Huber (2018), if blood supply can be restored in the first 20 to 30 minutes irreversible damage can be prevented. Cardiac remodeling can be prevented if necrotic tissue is lessened with emergent resuscitation. According to Reis et al. (2015), modeling can be reserved with optimized treatment and several studies have confirmed that drugs or procedures, which modify ventricular remodeling that prevent or delay cardiac dilation are linked to improved outcomes. ACE inhibitors and beta blockers have demonstrated a decreased rate of cardiac dilation and improve the process of remodeling (Reis et al., 2015). Some procedures such as cardiac resynchronization promote reversal of cardiac dilation as well.

Abcam. (2021).

 

References:

Abcam. (2021). Cardiac atrophy and heart remodeling. Retrieved from https://www.abcam.com/research-areas/cardiac-atrophy-and-heart-remodeling.

Azevedo, P. S., Polegato, B. F., Minicucci, M. F., Paiva, S. A., & Zornoff, L. A. (2016). Cardiac Remodeling: Concepts, Clinical Impact, Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Pharmacologic Treatment. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia, 106(1), 62–69. https://doi.org/10.5935/abc.20160005

Boundless. (n.d.). Boundless anatomy and physiology. Lumen. Retrieved from: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-ap/chapter/control-of-blood-pressure/.

Brown. (n.d.). Normal circulation and congestive heart failure. Retrieved from: https://www.brown.edu/Courses/Bio_281-cardio/cardio/handout1.htm.

Children’s Heart Federation. (2018). Ventricular septal defect (VSD). Retrieved from https://chfed.org.uk/how-we-help/information-service/heart-conditions/ventricular-septal-defect-vsd/.

Reis Filho, J. R., Cardoso, J. N., Cardoso, C. M., & Pereira-Barretto, A. C. (2015). Reverse Cardiac Remodeling: A Marker of Better Prognosis in Heart Failure. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia, 104(6), 502–506. https://doi.org/10.5935/abc.20150025

Value: 100

Due: To facilitate scholarly discourse, create your initial post by Day 3, and reply to at least two of your classmates, on two separate days, by Day 7.

Gradebook Category: Discussions

Introduction

As an APRN, teaching patients and colleagues will be an important part of your role. You have been asked to provide an educational session for your fellow APRNs on the cardiovascular system. The goal of your presentation will be to help your colleagues understand the basic components of the cardiovascular system, how they interact with each other, and how cardiac remodeling can occur.

Initial Post

For this week’s discussion board initial post, please develop a visual aid, diagram, image, or similar device that addresses the following questions. Include a brief explanation/description of the content covered in addition to your visual aid; the explanation can be recorded or written. Please be sure to use evidence-based, peer-reviewed journals that have been published within the past three to five years in addition to your textbook and course materials as you develop your post.

  1. Explain what stroke volume is and how it is related to the cardiovascular system; address, particularly, stroke volume, heart rate, and blood pressure.
  2. Identify two disorders of the cardiovascular system that affect stroke volume, heart rate, and BP, and explain how the disease state and pathophysiologic process alters these components away from their homeostatic state.
  3. Describe how these changes can result in cardiac remodeling. What signs and symptoms do patients experience as this occurs?
  4. Discuss whether this remodeling is reversible and/or preventable. What can be done to correct the pathologic process and return the cardiovascular system to its homeostatic state.

Reply Posts

Review your peers’ posts. Select and reply to two peers using the following prompts. Each reply must use at least one scholarly reference other than your textbook.

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Thinking about your population-specific NP track and anticipated practice area:

  • Identify three new things you learned.
  • Describe a patient you might encounter where you could apply the information learned in your peer’s post.
  • What “signs” and “symptoms” would you expect this patient to exhibit? Identify at least four, describe the findings, and classify each as subjective or objective data.

Please refer to the Grading Rubric for details on how this activity will be graded.

Posting to the Discussion Forum

  1. Select the appropriate Thread.
  2. Select Reply.
  3. Create your post.
  4. Select Post to Forum.

Note: Scholarly resources are defined as evidence-based practice, peer-reviewed journals; textbook (do not rely solely on your textbook as a reference); and National Standard Guidelines. Review assignment instructions, as this will provide any additional requirements that are not specifically listed on the rubric.

Note: The value of each of the criterion on this rubric represents a point range. (example: 17-0 points)

Discussion Question Rubric – 100 Points
Criteria Exemplary
Exceeds Expectations
Advanced
Meets Expectations
Intermediate
Needs Improvement
Novice
Inadequate
Total Points
Quality of Initial Post Provides clear examples supported by course content and references.

Cites three or more references, using at least one new scholarly resource that was not provided in the course materials.

All instruction requirements noted.

40 points

Components are accurate and thoroughly represented, with explanations and application of knowledge to include evidence-based practice, ethics, theory, and/or role. Synthesizes course content using course materials and scholarly resources to support importantpoints.

Meets all requirements within the discussion instructions.

Cites two references.

35 points

Components are accurate and mostly represented primarily with definitions and summarization. Ideas may be overstated, with minimal contribution to the subject matter. Minimal application to evidence-based practice, theory, or role development. Synthesis of course content is present but missing depth and/or development.

Is missing one component/requirement of the discussion instructions.

Cites one reference, or references do not clearly support content.

Most instruction requirements are noted.

31 points

Absent application to evidence-based practice, theory, or role development. Synthesis of course content is superficial.

Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation.

No references cited.

Missing several instruction requirements.

Submits post late.

27 points

40
Peer Response Post Offers both supportive and alternative viewpoints to the discussion, using two or more scholarly references per peer post. Post provides additional value to the conversation.

All instruction requirements noted.

40 points

Evidence of further synthesis of course content. Provides clarification and new information or insight related to the content of the peer’s post.

Response is supported by course content and a minimum of one scholarly reference per each peer post.

All instruction requirements noted.

35 points

Lacks clarification or new information. Scholarly reference supports the content in the peer post without adding new information or insight.

Missing reference from one peer post.

Partially followed instructions regarding number of reply posts.

Most instruction requirements are noted.

31 points

Post is primarily a summation of peer’s post without further synthesis of course content.

Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation.

Did not follow instructions regarding number of reply posts.

Missing reference from peer posts.

Missing several instruction requirements.

Submits post late.

27 points

40
Frequency of Distribution Initial post and peer post(s) made on multiple separate days.

All instruction requirements noted.

10 points

Initial post and peer post(s) made on multiple separate days.

8 points

Minimum of two post options (initial and/or peer) made on separate days.

7 points

All posts made on same day.

Submission demonstrates inadequate preparation.

No post submitted.

6 points

10
Organization Well-organized content with a clear and complex purpose statement and content argument. Writing is concise with a logical flow of ideas.

5 points

Organized content with an informative purpose statement, supportive content, and summary statement. Argument content is developed with minimal issues in content flow.

4 points

Poor organization and flow of ideas distract from content. Narrative is difficult to follow and frequently causes reader to reread work.

Purpose statement is noted.

3 points

Illogical flow of ideas. Prose rambles. Purpose statement is unclear or missing.

Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation.

No purpose statement.

Submits assignment late.

2 points

5
APA, Grammar, and Spelling Correct APA formatting with no errors.

The writer correctly identifies reading audience, as demonstrated by appropriate language (avoids jargon and simplifies complex concepts appropriately).

Writing is concise, in active voice, and avoids awkward transitions and overuse of conjunctions.

There are no spelling, punctuation, or word-usage errors.

5 points

Correct and consistent APA formatting of references and cites all references used. No more than two unique APA errors.

The writer demonstrates correct usage of formal English language in sentence construction. Variation in sentence structure and word usage promotes readability.

There are minimal to no grammar, punctuation, or word-usage errors.

4 points

Three to four unique APA formatting errors.

The writer occasionally uses awkward sentence construction or overuses/inappropriately uses complex sentence structure. Problems with word usage (evidence of incorrect use of thesaurus) and punctuation persist, often causing some difficulties with grammar. Some words, transitional phrases, and conjunctions are overused.

Multiple grammar, punctuation, or word usage errors.

3 points

Five or more unique formatting errors or no attempt to format in APA.

The writer demonstrates limited understanding of formal written language use; writing is colloquial (conforms to spoken language).

The writer struggles with limited vocabulary and has difficulty conveying meaning such that only the broadest, most general messages are presented.

Grammar and punctuation are consistently incorrect. Spelling errors are numerous.

Submits assignment late.

2 points

5
Total Points 100
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