NUR 550 Evaluate a clinical preventative intervention designed to promote health and wellness for populations

NUR 550 Evaluate a clinical preventative intervention designed to promote health and wellness for populations

NUR 550 Evaluate a clinical preventative intervention designed to promote health and wellness for populations

Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a clinical preventative intervention designed to stimulate health and wellness for populations. This client-centered, directive technique is designed to increase a person’s inherent motivation to make changes by examining and addressing any conflicting feelings (SAMHSA US, 2019). In essence, it is a type of therapy that supports people in recognizing and addressing any hesitation they may have about making changes and encourages them to create a plan to implement positive changes for their health and well-being. The effectiveness of MI in promoting health and wellness has been studied extensively in recent years, with a number of studies finding it to be an effective approach to behavior change. For example, a study found that MI was more effective than health education in reducing the number of hazardous drinking days among college students (Lee et al., 2019). Another randomized controlled trial established that an MI-based intervention was more effective than traditional therapy in reducing opioid use among individuals with opioid use disorder (Rasu et al., 2019). It illustrates that MI can be an effective tool in helping individuals make changes to their behaviors that can promote health and wellness. In addition to its effectiveness in promoting health and wellness, MI is also cost-effective, as it can be administered in a variety of settings and doesn’t require extensive training or resources. A brief computer-based MI intervention was cost-effective in reducing hazardous drinking among college students. This suggests that MI is an accessible and cost-effective tool for promoting health and wellness. Therefore, MI has been found to be an effective and cost-effective clinical intervention for promoting health and wellness. It can help individuals identify and resolve ambivalence to change, and then aid them in developing a plan to take action and modify their behavior. Furthermore, MI can be administered in a variety of settings and doesn’t require extensive training or resources. As such, it can be a useful tool for promoting health and wellness among populations.

References:

Lee, C. S., Colby, S. M., Rohsenow, D. J., Martin, R., Rosales, R., McCallum, T. T., … Cortés, D. E. (2019). A randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing tailored for heavy drinking Latinxs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 87(9), 815–830. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000428

SAMHSA US. (2019). Motivational Interviewing as a Counseling Style. In Enhancing Motivation for Change in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Updated 2019 [Internet]. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK571068/

Rasu, R. S., Thelen, J., Agbor Bawa, W., Goggin, K., Bradley-Ewing, A., & Catley, D. (2019). Motivational Interviewing to Encourage Quit Attempts Among Smokers Not Ready to Quit: A Trial-Based Economic Analysis. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 22(9), 1515–1523. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntz228

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The immunization program is one of the most successful clinical interventions that promote health and wellness for the entire population. Immunization starts from birth to 18 years of age. The CDC has a recommended immunization schedule that includes vaccines for Hepatitis B, Rotavirus, Influenza, DTaP, Pneumonia, Polio, MMR, HPV, Varicella, and recently, COVID (CDC, n.d.). This is implemented in every clinical setting including medical offices, hospitals, community centers, and nursing home facilities. rehabilitation facilities, specialty clinics, etc. Before a child enters school, this is also a requirement for school acceptance. However, immunization does end at 18 years, but this is just the beginning. We receive vaccination throughout our life, depending on the risk of acquiring the disease. Additional immunization is provided to more susceptible populations including the elderly and chronically ill.

Immunization can save lives. Some diseases that once killed thousands of people are now near extinction, primarily due to effective vaccination. Vaccines are safe and effective. The disease-prevention benefits are much greater than the possible effects. Through vaccination, we are also protecting our future generation (HHS, n.d.)

References:

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (n.d.). Child and adolescent immunization schedule by age. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/imz/child-adolescent.html

U.S. Department of Health and Human Service (HHS). (n.d.). Immunizations. https://www.hhs.gov/immunization/get-vaccinated/for-parents/five-reasons/index.html#:~:text=Immunizations%20can%20save%20your%20child’s%20life.&text=Some%20diseases%20that%20once%20injured,had%20in%20the%20United%20States.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates remain low despite the fact that CRC is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S. (Zhu, et al., 2022). Colorectal cancer screening is currently recommended for all adults over the age of 45 to aid in early detection and treatment of cancer to reduce mortality from the disease. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provided more Americans with health insurance that ever before which, theoretically, should have resulted in more people complying with CRC screening recommendations. The study by Zhu, et al. (2022) found that the main reasons for avoiding CRC screening included: concern about having an invasive procedure, difficulty completing a colon prep, concern for test/procedure accuracy, cost/insurance coverage, embarrassment, fear of positive results, medical mistrust, low socioeconomic status, and limited healthcare access. Factors that influenced people to follow through with CRC screening included provider recommendation, convenience with stool-screening in-home methods, scientific/clinical evidence and insurance coverage for screening. This study demonstrates that there are many barriers preventing people from following medical best practice guidance ans putting themselves at risk for morbidity and mortality from this disease. A multifactorial approach should be used to address all of these barriers to care to improve population health and reduce mortality from this illness.

References:

Zhu, X., Weiser, E., Griffin, J. M., Limburg, P. J., & Finney Rutten, L. J. (2022). Factors influencing colorectal cancer screening decision-making among average-risk US adults. Preventive Medicine Reports30, 102047. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2022.102047  

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