Assignment: The Leadership Quarterly 16 (2005) 315–338
Authentic leadership development: Getting to the
root of positive forms of leadership
Bruce J. AvolioT, William L. Gardner
Gallup Leadership Institute, College of Business Administration, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE, United States
This Special Issue is the result of the inaugural summit hosted by the Gallup Leadership Institute at the
University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 2004 on Authentic Leadership Development (ALD). We describe in this
introduction to the special issue current thinking in this emerging field of research as well as questions and
concerns. We begin by considering some of the environmental and organizational forces that may have
triggered interest in describing and studying authentic leadership and its development. We then provide an
overview of its contents, including the diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives presented, followed
by a discussion of alternative conceptual foundations and definitions for the constructs of authenticity,
authentic leaders, authentic leadership, and authentic leadership development. A detailed description of the
components of authentic leadership theory is provided next. The similarities and defining features of authentic
leadership theory in comparison to transformational, charismatic, servant and spiritual leadership perspectives
are subsequently examined. We conclude by discussing the status of authentic leadership theory with respect to
its purpose, construct definitions, historical foundations, consideration of context, relational/processual focus,
attention to levels of analysis and temporality, along with a discussion of promising directions for future
D 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Authenticity; Authentic leadership development; Transformational leadership; Authentic relationship; Positive
T Correspond E-mail add
see front matter D 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ing author. Tel.: +1 402 472 6380; fax: +1 402 472 3189.
ress: [email protected] (B.J. Avolio).
B.J. Avolio, W.L. Gardner / The Leadership Quarterly 16 (2005) 315–338316
Leadership has always been more difficult in challenging times, but the unique stressors facing
organizations throughout the world today call for a renewed focus on what constitutes genuine
leadership. Public, private and even volunteer organizations are addressing challenges that run the
gamut from ethical meltdowns to terrorism and SARS. What constitutes the normal range of
functioning in these conditions is constantly shifting upwards as new challenges, technologies, market
demands, and competition emerge. We suggest that such challenges have precipitated a renewed focus
on restoring confidence, hope, and optimism; being able to rapidly bounce back from catastrophic
events and display resiliency; helping people in their search for meaning and connection by fostering a
new self-awareness; and genuinely relating to all stakeholders (associates, customers, suppliers,
owners, and communities). As former head of Medtronic, Bill George (2003), succinctly states: bwe need leaders who lead with purpose, values, and integrity; leaders who build enduring organizations,
motivate their employees to provide superior customer service, and create long-term value for
shareholdersQ (p. 9). We suggest a need to concentrate on the root construct underlying all positive forms of leadership and its development, which we label authentic leadership development or ALD.
1.1. Special issue origins
Important information for writing discussion questions and participation
Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.
Contact me if you have any questions.
Important information on Writing a Discussion Question
- Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
- There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
- Include in-text citations in your response
- Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
- Follow APA-7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor
- A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
- Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
- Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
- Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
- Follow APA 7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
- Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
- Here are some helpful links
- Student paper example
- Citing Sources
- The Writing Center is a great resource
Welcome to class
Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.
I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.
Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.
If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.
Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.
Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.
I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!