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Assignment Running head A RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1

Assignment: Running head: A RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1

A RESEARCH PROPOSAL 6

A Research Proposal on Determining the Effect of Social Media Usage on Sleep Time

Zeinab Hazime

University of Michigan- Dearborn

4/22/19

A Research Proposal on Determining the Effect of Social Media Usage on Sleep Time

Introduction

It is no doubt that the use of social media is widespread among young adults and has been found to impact directly on the amount of sleep time among the students in colleges and Universities. Thus, continuous use of social networking site during sleep time leads to sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation refers to less sleep time than needed to keep the person awake and alert (AlDabal and BaHammam, 2011). Hence, this study is so interesting because it touches on an area that is so dear to most college students: social media.

The amount of time spent on social networking site directly eats up on sleep time. A study by Przybylski, Murayama, DeHaan, and Gladwell, (2013) found out that Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) was the major factor that drove students to be glued most of the time on social media. FOMO is regarded as a fear of regret that can result from a compulsive concern that people might be having social interaction, rewarding experiences, or a novel experience when in your absence (Przybylski et al., 2013). The anxiety is derived from a person’s desire to stay connected with what is being done by others. In other words, FOMO makes someone in constant worry of what he/she might be missing out and makes him/her imagine how things could be different when he/she could also benefit from the participation.

In that line, people ensure that they are connected with each another through Twitter streams, Facebook, Instagram updates, and LinkedIn updates (Przybylski et al., 2013). Thus, the FOMO on something is so intense to an extent that disconnecting from a cellphone becomes a problem, and even when a person decides to disconnect, he/she still finds himself/herself connecting “just once more”, to make sure that nothing has been missed out. Thus, the desire to keep in touch with friends most of the time has resulted in constant chats with friends, leading to poor sleeping habits. In that regard, sleep deprivation affects a person’s feelings and ability to stay concentrated, making the person more unsettled. That leads to small tasks to suddenly become monumental and smaller mistakes to become catastrophic to the sleep-deprived person. Additionally, the slight criticism from friends can only felt devastating and laughable jokes can feel like personal jabs (Kilburn, 2018). According to Kilburn (2018), such feelings are enough to drag a person down, including spurring a feeling of nervous wreckage. Additionally, sleep deprivation makes a person to develop negative bias whenever dealing with the racial minorities in critical decision-making contexts (Kilburn, 2018).

Assignment Running head A RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1

Assignment Running head A RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1

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Therefore, I chose to conduct a study on students’ use of social media by finding out the average time spent on different social sites that lead to sleep deprivation. The study shall be conducted using a cross-sectional quantitative research design. My reference is the article “Impact of social media usage on daytime sleepiness: A study in a sample of tertiary students in Singapore” (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6001210/) by A M A Nasirudeen, Lau Lee Chin Adeline, Koh Wat Neo Josephine, Lim Lay Seng, and Li Wenjie. One of the similarities of the proposed study and the article is that both pinpoint the commonly used social networking sites and the time the respondents spend on those social networking sites. In both cases, sleep time directly determines sleep deprivation. However, the difference is that in this study, data shall be collected in two stages, where the second step of data collection shall be done 1 week after the first step.

The Study Questions

For the proposed study, my research questions shall be: 1. How much time do students spend on social networking sites at night when there is no limitation? 2. How much time do students spend on sleeping per night after social networking? 3. How much time do students spend on sleeping with regulation on the time of social networking?

The Independent Variable

An independent variable is regarded as that variable which the researcher manipulates in order to determine its effect and influence on the dependent variable (Podsakoff and Organ, 1986). In my study, the independent variables shall be time spent on a social networking sites without regulations in networking times, time spent on sleeping without regulation in networking times, and time spent on sleeping with regulation of networking sites in place.

The Dependent Variable

The dependent variable is a criterion variable, which attempts to indicate total influence arising from an effect of the independent variable (Box and Tidwell, 1962). In this study, the dependent variable shall be sleep deprivation. The variable shall be determined through finding out the total sleep time. The hours of sleep of less than 7 hours shall indicate sleep deprivation while above 7 hours shall indicate enough sleep.

The Study Methodology

The study shall employ the cross-sectional quantitative research design whereby a brief questionnaire shall be administered to students that are in my school. Whereas the study can be done online, the researcher shall use in-class data collection since it is the quickest way of collecting data. The first data shall be filled on first day and the second on another day. Participants shall be requested to desist from using the social media for one week between 9.00 pm and 5.00 am for one week before moving on to the second part. There is no any special participant requirement, which could be problematic in the study since it involves some of my classmates and other students at University of Michigan. However, no respondent name shall be required to be filled in, thereby ensuring anonymity and reduce issues of bias in the study.

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The Pearson correlation analysis of time taken on social media usage and hours of sleep shall be necessary for this exercise. In this case, I will need the help of the instructor to analyze the data.

Data collection time

The average time taken to fill the data shall be about 4 minutes for first part and 4 minutes for second part. The questions shall be simple since they shall be short structured using student-familiar languages. Hence, the study shall not involve any equipment that may be problematic to use.

References

AlDabal, L., & BaHammam, A. (2011). Metabolic, endocrine, and immune consequences of sleep deprivation. The Open Respiratory Medicine Journal,5, 31-43. Chokroverty, S. S. (2010). Overview of sleep and sleep disorders. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 131(2), 126-140

Box, G. E., & Tidwell, P. W. (1

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

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