Assignment: Philosophy – Critical Thinking and Logic
Phil 102 [B & C] Name: _______________________
Test Chapter #6 Section: ______________________ Due date in class on 11/29 plus homework 6.1.
Staple your test and paper clip your homework –you will turn them in separately. You must take this test without the help of another person but consulting the text and/or other materials is allowed. Receiving help from another person on this test will constitute a breach of academic integrity and the violation will be pursued to the fullest extent possible –resulting in the grade of an “F” for the course at minimum. Philosophy – Critical Thinking and Logic Assignment.
Identify any informal fallacies contained in the following passages. If no fallacy is committed, write “no fallacy.” A justification is not required BUT without a sensible justification, “unexpected” answers will receive no credit (4pts. ea. x 25 = 100pts.) Please use the answer sheets found at the end of this document.
(1) Clearly the moral standards of our youth have decayed. Two medical doctors at Central Hospital appeared recently on a talk show, and both were convinced that the youth of today have no morals at all.
(2) Smith, Adams, and Harris all outlived their wives, and their wives were younger than they were. It must be the case that all men outlive women these days.
(3) A spokesman for the government has argued that our insistence on a twelve percent increase in pay for steel workers is inflationary. But the government’s own actions are far more inflationary than ours. The government just gave a fifteen percent increase to every single employee of the giant federal bureaucracy.
(4) I am the greatest Words With Friends player there is. I beat everybody; everybody that doesn’t cheat, that is. And how do I know that the people that beat me cheat? Because I am the best Words With Friends player there is, so you would have to be cheating in order to beat me.
(5) Professors have argued for the new attendance policy as good for student retention. But we, the students, know that the attendance policy should be rejected. The Professors really just want an audience for their boring lectures.
(6) Let us compare Aspirin and Morphine. Aspirin is an analgesic drug, and it is appropriately purchased over the counter. Morphine is an analgesic drug too. Therefore, morphine should be available over the counter.
(7) You have been rather outspoken lately in your criticism of the administration; but I am sure that you will want to keep your mouth shut in the future, because several of those who have been critical in the past have now lost their jobs.
(8) Dog owners have asked that they be allowed to bring their pets to the beach. This request will have to be denied. If dogs are allowed on the beach, then soon we will have horses and cows. Before long there will be sheep, goats, pigs, and chickens. All that potential food will attract the owners of jaguars, lions, and tigers. In the end, the beach will be a war zone.
(9) Either we allow prayer in public schools or we completely ban religion altogether –no more churches, temples, mosques… But we don’t want to make religion illegal. Hence, prayer must be allowed in public schools.
(10) I know that someone got car jacked on this road last week; that is exactly why I am taking it. It has got to be safe now, what are the chances of a second car jacking two weeks in a row?
(11) Marsha is very independent; she has few close friends and is quite content to be on her own. Voters registered as Independents don’t usually vote for establishment candidates. Hence, Marsha won’t vote for Hillary. Philosophy – Critical Thinking and Logic Assignment.
(12) The Surgeon General recently issued a report arguing that one third of the cancer fatalities in the United States can be attributed to smoking. But this claim is ridiculous. Smoking produces a great deal of enjoyment for millions of Americans. What would life be like if you couldn’t enjoy something once in a while?
(13) Steve, do you still drive your car like a madman?
(14) Most elderly people who are hospitalized with cancer eventually die from the disease. Hence, if you are diagnosed with cancer you must stay clear of hospitals, else you will surely die.
(15) Mr. Thompson is clearly unqualified to operate the Paradise Day Care Center for young children. A few years ago Thompson was convicted of fifteen counts of child molestation and statutory rape.
(16) You have heard Congressman Atkins’ arguments in favor of reduced military expenditures. But surely you won’t take them seriously. Atkins, as you know, is an admitted alcoholic, and rumor has it that he abuses his wife and children.
(17) What do you mean you don’t eat meat and that it is wrong to eat meat? Everyone around here eats meat. Now go get you some BBQ.
(18) If there is no God, then there is no meaning to life. But there must be meaning to life. Hence, there is a God.
(19) No one has ever proved that smoking small amounts of marijuana over long periods of time is harmful. We can therefore conclude that this practice is completely safe.
(20) Mr. Rankin has just given his argument against the equal pay for equal work bill as unnecessary for gender equality. It seems what he is saying is that women should stay out of the work place altogether. Just keep them barefoot and pregnant. That’s what Rankin wants. Well, I think that we are all smart enough to reject that argument.
(21) Fellow citizens! Today we are threatened with the loss of our sacred right to bear arms. A pack of gutless, liberal politicians wants to outlaw the sale of handguns. But they won’t get away with it. The right to bear arms is guaranteed in the Constitution! Our blessed forefathers created this right and bestowed it on all Americans. Protect the constitution! Hear our cry! Down with the gutless pinkos!
(22) Why did you purchase a handgun? Joey down the street committed suicide with a handgun that was in the house. And in the next town over, a five-year-old child accidently shot his grandfather when he found his grandfather’s gun. Guns are not safe. Philosophy – Critical Thinking and Logic Assignment.
(23) What do you mean you don’t want to be there when the doors open at 12:00am on Black Friday, everyone else is going.
(24) Of course I keyed his car. The jerk cheated on me!
(25) I am going into banking, so I am subscribing to The Wall Street Journal; most successful investment bankers do.
This paper will focus on clinical psychology and give you the opportunity to focus on a particular diagnosis from the DSMV.
Choose a clinical diagnosis and describe the problem (symptoms, etiology, onest)
Provide overall prevalence information
Discuss prevalence information for ethnic differences
Discuss prevalence information for gender differences
Provide a treatment plan, include medications if its relevant
Plagiarism is the use of someone else’s ideas without giving proper acknowledgement. The term “plagiarism” includes, but is not limited to, the use, by paraphrase or direct quotation, of the published or unpublished work of another person without full and clear acknowledgement. It also includes the unacknowledged use of materials prepared by another person or agency engaged in the furnishing or selling of term papers or other academic materials.
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy TENTH EDITION
Four Areas of Development (slide 1 of 2)
1. Classical (or Respondent) Conditioning
Refers to what happens prior to learning that creates a response through pairing
2. Operant Conditioning
Focuses on a type of learning in which behaviors are influenced mainly by the consequences that follow them
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (1)
Four Areas of Development (slide 2 of 2)
3. Social-Learning (or Social-Cognitive) Approach
Gives prominence to the triadic reciprocal interaction between an individual’s behavior, personal factors, and the environment
4. Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Social skills training, cognitive therapy, stress management training, mindfulness, and acceptance-based practices all represent the cognitive behavioral tradition
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (2)
Behavior Therapy (slide 1 of 3)
A set of clinical procedures relying on experimental findings of psychological research
Based on principles of learning that are systematically applied
Focus is on the client’s current problems and on assessing behavior through observation or self-monitoring
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (3)
Behavior Therapy (slide 2 of 3)
Largely action-oriented and educational – therapist teaches clients skills of self-management
Behavior is something that can be operationally defined; it includes overt actions as well as internal processes
Change can take place without insight into underlying dynamics and the origins of a psychological problem
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (4)
Behavior Therapy (slide 3 of 3)
Behaviorists ask: “What treatment, by whom, is the most effective for this individual with that specific problem and under which set of circumstances?”
The general goals of behavior therapy are to increase personal choice and to create new conditions for learning
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (5)
Functional Assessment of Behavior
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (6)
Positive and negative reinforcement
Goal: to increase target behavior
Goal: to decrease or eliminate a behavior by withholding reinforcement from a previously reinforced response
Positive and negative punishment
Goal: to decrease target behavior
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (7)
Progressive Muscle Relaxation
Progressive muscle relaxation is a popular method of teaching people to cope with the stresses produced by daily living
Relaxation becomes a well-learned response, which can become a habitual pattern if practiced daily
Relaxation procedures have been applied to a variety of clinical problems ranging from chronic pain to panic disorder
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (8)
Based on classical conditioning, SD was developed by Joseph Wolpe
SD is effective in reducing maladaptive anxiety and treating anxiety-related disorders, particularly specific phobias
SD entails relaxation training, development of a graduated anxiety hierarchy, and presentation of hierarchy items while client is deeply relaxed
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (9)
Exposure Therapies (slide 1 of 2)
In Vivo Desensitization
Involves client exposure to the actual anxiety-evoking events rather than simply imagining these situations
In vivo or imaginal exposure to anxiety-evoking stimuli for a prolonged period of time without the feared consequences
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (10)
Exposure Therapies (slide 2 of 2)
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
An exposure-based therapy
Involves imaginal flooding, cognitive restructuring, and the use of rhythmic eye movements and other bilateral stimulation to treat traumatic stress disorders
Extensive research has validated EMDR
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (11)
Counseling Theories and Technology Discussion Assignment – Social Skills Training
Helps clients develop and achieve skills in interpersonal competence
May involve behavioral procedures (e.g., psychoeducation, modeling, behavior rehearsal, and feedback)
If clients can correct their problematic behaviors in practice situations, they can then apply these new skills in daily life
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (12)
In S-M programs people make decisions concerning specific behaviors they want to control or change
The process includes selecting goals, translating goals into target behaviors, self-monitoring, working out a plan for change, and evaluating an action plan
S-M strategies have been successfully applied to many populations and problems
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (13)
Counseling Theories and Technology Discussion Assignment – Multimodal Therapy
A comprehensive, systematic, holistic approach to behavior therapy developed by Arnold Lazarus
Grounded in social-cognitive theory
Applies diverse behavioral techniques to a wide range of problems; it encourages technical eclecticism
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (14)
Multimodal Therapy: BASIC ID
The complex personality of human beings can be divided into seven major areas of functioning:
B = behavior
A = affective responses
S = sensations
I = images
C = cognitions
I = interpersonal relationships
D = drugs, biological functions, nutrition, and exercise
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (15)
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
A promising blend of behavioral and psychoanalytic techniques for treating borderline personality disorders and other issues
Includes both acceptance-oriented and change-oriented strategies
Skills are taught in four modules: mindfulness, interpersonal effectiveness, emotional regulation, and distress tolerance
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (16)
Counseling Theories and Technology Discussion Assignment – Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction
Assists people in learning to live more fully in the present
The skills taught in MBSR include sitting meditation and mindful yoga, aimed at cultivating mindfulness
Didactic instruction is minimized and experiential learning and self-discovery are emphasized
MBSR is not a form of psychotherapy per se, but it can be an adjunct to therapy
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (17)
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy
An 8-week group treatment program adapted from MBSR that includes components of CBT
Clients learn to respond in skillful and intentional ways to their automatic negative thought patterns
Kindness and self-compassion are essential components of MBCT
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (18)
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
ACT involves fully accepting present experience and mindfully letting go of obstacles
There is little emphasis on changing the content of a client’s thoughts. Instead, the emphasis is on acceptance (nonjudgmental awareness) of cognitions
The goal of ACT is to allow for increased psychological flexibility
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (19)
Application to Group Counseling (slide 1 of 2)
Rely on empirical support and tend to be brief
Emphasize self-management skills and thought restructuring
Use a brief, directive, psychoeducational approach
Conduct behavioral assessments
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (20)
Application to Group Counseling (slide 2 of 2)
Leaders and members
Create collaborative, precise treatment goals
Devise a specific treatment plan to help each member meet goals
Objectively measure treatment outcome
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (21)
Strengths from a Diversity Perspective
Behavior therapy may appeal to culturally diverse clients for many reasons (e.g., it emphasizes objectivity, tasks, cognition, behavior, action, coping, problem-solving, etc.)
Behavior therapy focuses on environmental, social, and political conditions that contribute to a client’s problems
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (22)
Limitations from a Diversity Perspective
Some counselors may use a variety of techniques in narrowly treating specific behavioral problems
Therapists who do not assess the interpersonal and cultural dimensions of the client’s problem may not adequately prepare him/her for the consequences of newly acquired social skills
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (23)
Contributions of Behavior Therapy
The specificity of the behavioral approaches helps clients translate unclear goals into concrete plans of action
A wide variety of specific behavioral techniques have been developed
Behavioral interventions have been subjected to more rigorous evaluation than other approaches
Behavior therapy emphasizes ethical accountability
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (24)
Please watch the video “I am my Connectome (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.” By Sebastian Seung.
Video Description: Sebastian Seung is mapping a massively ambitious new model of the brain that focuses on the connections between each neuron. He calls it our “connectome,” and it’s as individual as our genome — and understanding it could open a new way to understand our brains and our minds.
Discussion Directions: In your response, discuss your thoughts on what Seung is describing. Summarize his key points. What are strengths/limitations of his findings? How do you feel about his statements? Do you agree or disagree with his view?
Note: Your initial post must be at least 200 words in length. Post must be several sentences in length to be considered for credit. Support your points with information from the textbook or external educational sources. Be sure to cite your sources in APA formatting. Discussion – I am my Connectome Assignment Paper
Directions: Be sure to save an electronic copy of your answer before submitting it to Ashworth College for grading. Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English, spelling, and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be four (4) double‐spaced pages; refer to the “Format Requirementsʺ page located at the beginning of this learning guide for specific format requirements.
Most psychologists today agree that it is important to look at the biological, psychological, and social factors that are involved with the etiology and treatment of mental disorders. The Diathesis-Stress model proposes that genetic and/or psychological vulnerabilities, combined with individual or environmental stressors, leads to distress and/or dysfunction and the possible development of psychological disorders.
For this assignment, you will select two of the disorders we have discussed in Lessons 2, 3, and 4 (e.g. generalized anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, etc.) and discuss the following.
- Symptomology – Give a thorough description of the specific characteristics of two (2) disorders.
- Etiology – Discuss the etiology of the disorders from a diathesis-stress model perspective. Include biological, psychological, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of the disorder.
- Treatment – Describe two (2) treatment approaches for each disorder.
Please refer to the rubric on the next page for the grading criteria for this assignment.
25 points20 points15 points10 points
The student provides a clear description of the symptomology of two (2) psychological disorders.
The student provides a mostly clear description of the symptomology of two (2) psychological disorders.
The student provides a somewhat clear description of the symptomology of two (2) psychological disorders.
The student provides a poor description of the symptomology of two psychological disorders.
25 points20 points15 points10 points
The student provides a clear description of biological, psychological, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of the two (2) psychological disorders chosen.
The student provides a mostly clear description of biological, psychological, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of the two (2) psychological disorders chosen.
The student provides a somewhat clear description of biological, psychological, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of the two (2) psychological disorders chosen.
The student provides a poor description of biological, psychological, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of the two (2) psychological disorders chosen.
25 points20 points15 points10 points
The student provides a clear description of two (2) treatment approaches for each disorder (4 total).
The student provides a mostly clear description of two (2) treatment approaches for each disorder (4 total).
The student provides a somewhat clear description of two (2) treatment approaches for each disorder (4 total).
The student provides a poor description of two (2) treatment approaches for each disorder (4 total).
10 points 8 points 5 points 2 points
Student makes no errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.
Student makes 1-2 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.
Student makes 3-4 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.
Student makes more than 4 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.
15 points 12 points 8 points 5 points. Philosophy – Critical Thinking and Logic Assignment
The paper is written in proper format. All sources used for quotes and facts are credible and cited correctly. Excellent organization, including a variety of thoughtful transitions.
The paper is written in proper format with only 1-2 errors. All sources used for quotes and facts are credible and most are cited correctly. Adequate organization includes a variety of appropriate transitions.
The paper is written in proper format with only 3-5 errors.
Most sources used for quotes and facts are credible and cited correctly. Essay is poorly organized, but may include a few effective transitions.
The paper is not written in proper format. Many sources used for quotes and facts are less than credible (suspect) and/or are not cited correctly. Philosophy – Critical Thinking and Logic Assignment
Essay is disorganized and does not include effective transitions.
Key symptoms of two (2) disorders (25 Points).
Discuss the etiology of both disorders according to the diathesis-stress model (25 Points)
Discuss two (2) treatment approaches for both disorders (25 Points)
Mechanics – Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling (10 Points)
Format – APA Format, Citations, Organization,
Transitions (15 Points). Philosophy – Critical Thinking and Logic Assignment.
Important information for writing discussion questions and participation
Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.
Contact me if you have any questions.
Important information on Writing a Discussion Question
- Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
- There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
- Include in-text citations in your response
- Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
- Follow APA-7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor
- A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
- Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
- Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
- Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
- Follow APA 7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
- Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
- Here are some helpful links
- Student paper example
- Citing Sources
- The Writing Center is a great resource
Welcome to class
Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.
I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute sessi