Assignment: Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefﬁcient
Correlational analyses identify associations between two variables. There are many different kinds of statistics that yield a measure of correlation. All of these statistics address a research question or hypothesis that involves an association or relationship. Examples of research questions that are answered with correlation statistics are, “Is there an association between weight loss and depression?” and “Is there a relationship between patient satisfaction and health status?” A hypothesis is developed to identify the nature (positive or negative) of the relationship between the variables being studied.
The Pearson product-moment correlation was the ﬁrst of the correlation measures developed and is the most commonly used. As is explained in Exercise 13 , this coefﬁcient (statistic) is represented by the letter r , and the value of r is always between − 1.00 and + 1.00. A value of zero indicates no relationship between the two variables. A positive correlation indicates that higher values of x are associated with higher values of y. A negative or inverse correlation indicates that higher values of x are associated with lower values of y.
The r value is indicative of the slope of the line (called a regression line) that can be drawn through a standard scatterplot of the two variables (see Exercise 11 ). The strengths of different relationships are identiﬁ ed in Table 28-1 ( Cohen, 1988 ). EXERCISE 28 TABLE 28-1 STRENGTH OF ASSOCIATION FOR PEARSON r Strength of Association Positive Association Negative Association Weak association 0.00 to < 0.300.00 to < − 0.30 Moderate association 0.30 to 0.49 − 0.49 to − 0.30 Strong association 0.50 or greater − 1.00 to − 0.50
RESEARCH DESIGNS APPROPRIATE FOR THE PEARSON r
Research designs that may utilize the Pearson r include any associational design ( Gliner, Morgan, & Leech, 2009 ). The variables involved in the design are attributional, meaning the variables are characteristics of the participant, such as health status, blood pressure, gender, diagnosis, or ethnicity. Regardless of the nature of variables, the variables submit-ted to a Pearson correlation must be measured as continuous or at the interval or ratio level.
STATISTICAL FORMULA AND ASSUMPTIONS
Use of the Pearson correlation involves the following assumptions: 1. Interval or ratio measurement of both variables (e.g., age, income, blood pressure, cholesterol levels). However, if the variables are measured with a Likert scale, and the frequency distribution is approximately normally distributed, these data are
Important information for writing discussion questions and participation
Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.
Contact me if you have any questions.
Important information on Writing a Discussion Question
- Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
- There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
- Include in-text citations in your response
- Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
- Follow APA-7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor
- A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
- Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
- Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
- Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
- Follow APA 7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
- Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
- Here are some helpful links
- Student paper example
- Citing Sources
- The Writing Center is a great resource
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Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.
I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!