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Assignment NURS 6521N Pathophysiology of Acute Chronic and Referred Pain

Assignment: NURS 6521N Pathophysiology of Acute Chronic and Referred Pain

Post a description of the pathophysiology of acute, chronic, and referred pain, including similarities and differences between them. Then, explain how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prescription of treatment for acute, chronic, and referred pain.

The International Association for the Study of Pain and the American Pain Society defined pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential damage or described in terms of such damage” (IASP, 1994). Acute pain is a protective mechanism that provides a warning that a condition or injury is actively harming the body. It motivates the affected individual to take immediate action in controlling or eradicating the pain.

Acute pain is usually short term lasting less than 3 months. Acute pain is usually tolerable but if left untreated can lead to chronic pain. In contrast to acute pain, chronic pain has lost its ability to warn and protect. It lasts for more than 3 to 6 months. Chronic pain no longer correlates with a causative agent. Chronic pain takes on its own identity and requires special treatment. Referred pain is a type of pain that can be classified as acute or chronic. It is described as being a pain that is distant from the actual point of injury.

NURS 6521N Pathophysiology of Acute Chronic and Referred Pain


Nociceptors are free nerve endings that are located all over the body. The main purpose of these receptors are to respond to damage to the body by transmitting signals to the spinal cord and brain. These transmitted signals are complex in that they carry information about the location and intensity of the painful stimuli. This will allow the brain to fully process the pain, and eventually send communication back to block further pain signals.

Nociceptors are classified by which stimuli they respond to and how fast they transmit pain signals. There are two main types of nerve fibers, A fiber axons and C fiber axons. Due to the difference in transmission speed between A and C fibers, the A fibers reach the spinal cord before the C fibers, as a result of an acute injury, pain is experienced in two phases. When a injury is suffered, Nociceptors activate the A fibers, causing a person to feel a sensation of sharp pain. This pain is not as intense as the pain that comes to follow. The second phase of pain is a result of C fibers being activated. The second phase of pain causes the individual to feel a sensation of an intense, burning pain that persists even after the stimulus has stopped.

Acute pain serves as a protective mechanism to indicate damage to the body. Chronic pain serves no purpose and causes long term suffering to the individual. Chronic pain is thought to be a change in the peripheral and central nervous systems that cause dysregulation of nociception and pain modulation processes. Physiological responses are similar in both acute and chronic pain. Chronic, persistent pain allows for an individual to adapt physiologically and produce a normal blood pressure and heart rate.

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Assignment NURS 6521N Pathophysiology of Acute Chronic and Referred Pain

Assignment NURS 6521N Pathophysiology of Acute Chronic and Referred Pain

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International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). IASP pain terminology. [Available at] wwwiaspain.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=pain_Definitions&;Template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentIK=1728#Pain [Accessed September 2018].






https://www.medical.theclinics.com/article/S0025-7125(15)00142-X/pdfurceful answer.

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

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