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Assignment NR 602 Congenital Heart Defects Soap

Assignment: NR 602 Congenital Heart Defects Soap

Congenital Heart Defects 

CHD is caused by an alteration in development of or failure of the embryonic heart to progress beyond an early developmental stage. This alteration occurs in the 2nd to 8th weeks of gestation due to genetic, environmental, or multifactorial influences. Most cases of CHD have no identifiable cause. With the publication of the human genome and advances in molecular techniques, more genetic factors have been identified as playing a possible role in CHD. This is increasingly important as more children with CHD survive to their own childbearing years.

769 NR 602 Congenital Heart Defects Soap

Two percent to 4% of CHD is caused by teratogens, maternal conditions, or environmental influences. Drugs or teratogens linked to CHD include lithium, …

 

Congenital Malformation Syndromes Associated with Selected Congenital Heart Disease

Disorders Resultant Heart Defect(s)/Occurrence
Syndromes with Aneuploidy (Abnormal Chromosome Number) or Microdeletion (≈10% of Congenital Heart Disease)
Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) AV septal defect, VSD, ASD, PDA, TOF (50%)
Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) VSD, ASD, PDA, COA, bicuspid aortic or pulmonary valve (99%)
Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) VSD, PDA, dextrocardia (90%)
Monosomy X (Turner syndrome) Bicuspid aortic valve, COA (35%), pulmonic stenosis
Klinefelter variant (XXXXY) PDA, ASD (15%)
22q11.2 deletion (DiGeorge syndrome) Interrupted aortic arch, truncus arteriosus, TOF, perimembranous VSD, aortic arch anomalies
7q11.23 deletion (Williams syndrome) Pulmonic stenosis, supravalvular aortic stenosis
Syndromes with Congenital Heart Disease from Single Gene Defects
Marfan syndrome (FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2) Mitral valve prolapse, aortic root dilation
Noonan syndrome (PTPN11) Valvular pulmonic stenosis, HCM
Costello syndrome (HRAS) Pulmonary stenosis, HCM, conduction abnormalities
Alagille syndrome (JAG1, NOTCH2) Pulmonic stenosis, TOF, ASD, peripheral pulmonic stenosis
Heterotaxy syndrome (ZIC3, CFC1) DILV, DORV, d-TGA, AVSD
CHARGE (CHD7, SEMA3E) Truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic arch
Jacobsen (11q23 deletion) HLHS, COA
Holt-Oram syndrome (TBX5) ASD, VSD
Cri du chat syndrome (5p) VSD, PDA, ASD (25%)
Neurofibromatosis Pulmonic stenosis, COA
Leopard syndrome (PTPN11, RAF 1) Pulmonic stenosis, conduction abnormalities
Nonhereditary Syndromes (Fetal Exposure)
Fetal alcohol syndrome VSD, PDA, ASD, TOF (25% to 30%)
Fetal hydantoin syndrome Pulmonic stenosis, aortic stenosis, COA, PDA, VSD, ASD (<5%)
Fetal trimethadione syndrome TGA, VSD, TOF (15% to 30%)
Infant of diabetic mother TGA, VSD, COA (3% to 5%); cardiomyopathy (10% to 20%)

Specific Congenital Heart Diseases

Congestive Heart Failure

Assignment NR 602 Congenital Heart Defects Soap

Assignment NR 602 Congenital Heart Defects Soap

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CHF refers to a progressive clinical and pathophysiologic syndrome found in many children with heart problems. The symptoms vary with age of the child and the root cardiac problem (Box 31-4). Besides functional changes, CHF is marked by changes in neurohormonal and molecular changes within the heart.

NR 602 Congenital Heart Defects Soap

Signs and Symptoms of Congestive Heart Failure

Infants

Tachypnea

Tachycardia

Rales or wheezing

Cardiomegaly and hepatomegaly

Periorbital edema

Poor feeding/tires easily when feeding

Poor weight gain

Diaphoresis

Children and Teens

Tachypnea

Tachycardia

Rales or wheezing

Cardiomegaly and hepatomegaly

Orthopnea

Shortness of breath or dyspnea with exertion

Peripheral edema

Poor growth and development

CHF in children can be caused by …

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TABLE 31-8

Conditions Associated with Congestive Heart Failure in Children

Age Condition
Premature infant Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Birth to 1 week old Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS)
Coarctation of the aorta (COA)
Critical aortic stenosis
Interrupted aortic arch
Arteriovenous malformations
Tachycardia
Cardiomyopathy
1 week to 3 months old Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
Truncus arteriosus
Atrioventricular (AV) canal (endocardial cushion defect)
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
Coarctation
Tachycardia
PDA
Aortic stenosis
Tricuspid atresia
Older than 1 year Bacterial endocarditis
Rheumatic fever
Myocarditis

 

NR 602 Congenital Heart Defects Soap

The largest group of infants and children with CHF are those with excessive left to right shunting through unrepaired congenital defects. CHF is somewhat of a …

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

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