Assignment: Legislation Comparison Grid And Testimony/Advocacy Statement
NRSE 6050 Assignment: Legislation Comparison Grid And Testimony/Advocacy Statement

Assignment: Legislation Comparison Grid And Testimony/Advocacy Statement

As a nurse, how often have you thought to yourself, If I had anything to do about it, things would work a little differently? Increasingly, nurses are beginning to realize that they do, in fact, have a role and a voice.

Many nurses encounter daily experiences that motivate them to take on an advocacy role in hopes of impacting policies, laws, or regulations that impact healthcare issues of

NRSE 6050 Assignment Legislation Comparison Grid And Testimony Advocacy Statement

interest. Of course, doing so means entering the less familiar world of policy and politics. While many nurses do not initially feel prepared to operate in this space effectively, the reward is the opportunity to shape and influence future health policy.

To Prepare:

Select a bill that has been proposed (not one that has been enacted) using the congressional websites provided in the Learning Resources.

The Assignment: (1- to 2-page Comparison Grid; 1- to 2-page Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement)

Part 1: Legislation Comparison Grid

Based on the health-related bill (proposed, not enacted) you selected, complete the Legislation Comparison Grid Template. Be sure to address the following:

Determine the legislative intent of the bill you have reviewed.
Identify the proponents/opponents of the bill.
Identify the target populations addressed by the bill.
Where in the process is the bill currently? Is it in hearings or committees?
Is it receiving press coverage?

Legislation Grid Template

Use this document to complete Part 1 of the Module 2 Assessment Legislation Grid and Testimony/Advocacy Statement

Health-related Bill Name
Helping Health Care Workers Afford Child and Elderly Care Act
Bill Number S.3567
Description Healthcare providers have an essential role to play in the provision of care to the diverse populations. In doing this, they also have the responsibility to ensure that they address the healthcare needs of those who depend on them. In specific, the healthcare providers should be able to afford the care that their children and elderly parents need. This implies that there is a need for a legislation that provides the healthcare givers with the financial support that they need in ensuring that the health needs of their children and elderly parents are met (Crawshaw et al., 2020). Therefore, the Helping Health Care Workers Afford Child and Elder Care Act has been proposed to achieve this outcome.

Federal or State? The bill is a state bill. It seeks to ensure that all the states adopt the bill to ensure that healthcare providers can afford the care that their children and elderly need. The bill aims to enhance the affordability, accessibility, and availability of the care that those dependent on healthcare providers need.
Legislative Intent The Helping Healthcare Workers Afford Child and Elder Care Act targets mainly the essential workers in the state. The essential workers as defined in the bill include the health-sector workers, sanitation workers, workers who are unable to telework, emergency responders, and employees of the businesses that must be open during public emergencies. According to the bill, there should be an increase in the funding for the bill to achieve its objective. The states are obligated to allocate $500000 in the fiscal year 2020. The funds are to be used for the provision of child care services for the essential workers, daytime care services as well as adult protective services for individuals that are household members of essential workers or dependent on household workers and require healthcare services. The funds are proposed to reimburse for the essential workers for costs to be incurred in seeking services including emergency care services and child care services for the children and elderly depending on the essential workers. The eligibility of the children and elderly for the funds shall not be conditioned on a means test (Shaheen, 2020).
Proponents/ Opponents Proponents: Currently, five senators have co-sponsored the bill. The senators include Baldwin Tammy, Hassan Margaret Wood, Harris Kamala, Reed Jack, and Durbin Richard. According to the proponents of the bill, the bill will increase the access to care by the dependents of the health care workers. The bill will also lessen the burden of the disease to the healthcare workers. Through it, the health care workers will be assured of the support from the state on matters of health affecting their significant others.

Opponents: The bill currently does not have opponents for its implementation. However, it is anticipated that the bill will face some opposition from arguments that the existing health acts such as the Affordable Care Act addresses the needs of the elderly and children in different states. The bill might also face some resistance against its implementation due to the current huge wage bill in most of the states.

Target Population The target population for the bill comprises mainly of the children and elderly who depend on essential workers.

Status of the bill (Is it in hearings or committees?) The bill is currently on the hearing stage.

General Notes/Comments

The Health Care Workers Afford Child and Elder Care Act is an important bill that should be implemented by all the states in America. The bill seeks to lower the burden of a disease of health care needs for the essential workers. Essential workers play a critical role in the promotion of the health of the diverse populations. The ability to provide high quality care to the populations in need depend largely on the manner in which their actual and potential needs as human beings are met. The bill seeks to promote the mental health and wellbeing of the essential workers by assuring them state support for the healthcare needs of their dependents. Through it, the health care workers are expected to be highly motivated to engage in activities that promote the health and wellbeing of the general population. According to Niles (2019), legislative interventions that address the critical needs of the healthcare providers are critical in promoting their motivation in providing care to others. Through the proposed bill, it is expected that the essential workers will be highly motivated to provide innovative and evidence-based care to their populations (Milstead, 2019; Olusegun & Tinuke, 2020). Consequently, I support its adoption in the states to address the needs of the healthcare givers too in supporting their families. One of the interventions that I will utilize to address the opponents in my position is pointing out the essential role that healthcare workers play in our country. For example, I will use the effects of Covid19 on the population and healthcare workers to increase the relevance of the bill in supporting the needs of the essential workers. I will also use principles of human resource management such as employee development to address opponents of the bill. For example, I will argue that implementing the bill will motivate the health care workers, hence, the promotion of the health and wellbeing of the population as a whole. Lastly, I will cite evidence from evidence-based studies and countries that have implemented similar acts in the past.

References
Crawshaw, J., Budhwar, P., & Davis, A. (2020). Human Resource Management: Strategic and International Perspectives. SAGE.
Milstead, J. A. (2019). Health Policy and Politics: A Nurse’s Guide. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Niles, N. J. (2019). Basic Concepts of Health Care Human Resource Management. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Olusegun, A., Sulaiman, & Tinuke, F. (2020). Human Resource Management Practices for Promoting Sustainability. IGI Global.
Shaheen, J. (2020, March 22). S.3567 – 116th Congress (2019-2020): Helping Health Care Workers Afford Child and Elder Care Act (2019/2020) [Webpage]. https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/senate-bill/3567

Part 2: Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement

Based on the health-related bill you selected, develop a 1- to 2-page Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement that addresses the following:

Advocate a position for the bill you selected and write testimony in support of your position.
Describe how you would address the opponent to your position. Be specific and provide examples.
Recommend at least one amendment to the bill in support of your position.
By Day 7 of Week 4

Submit your completed legislation comparison grid and testimony/advocacy statement.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
Click the Week 4 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
Click the Week 4 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 4 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 4 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4

To submit your Assignment:

Week 4 Assignment

Next Module

To go to the next Module:

Module 3

Hello good morning. I just realize the order i placed yesterday.. the comparison template template is for a different assignment which i will order now… please follow the instructions on the first order. it should only be about two pages of an explanation for how you think the cost-benefit analysis in terms of legislators being reelected affected efforts to repeal/replace the ACA. Then, explain how analyses of the votes views may affect decisions by legislative leaders in recommending or positioning national policies

Part 2: Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement

Based on the health-related bill you selected, develop a 1- to 2-page Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement that addresses the following:

Advocate a position for the bill you selected and write testimony in support of your position.
Describe how you would address the opponent to your position. Be specific and provide examples.
Recommend at least one amendment to the bill in support of your position.
Post an explanation for how you think the cost-benefit analysis in the statement from page 27 of Feldstein (2006) affected efforts to repeal/replace the ACA. Then, explain how analyses such as the one portrayed by the Feldstein statement may affect decisions by legislative leaders in recommending or positioning national policies (e.g., Congress’ decisions impacting Medicare or Medicaid). Assignment: Legislation Comparison Grid And Testimony/Advocacy Statement
Click here to ORDER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER!!! Assignment: Legislation Comparison Grid And Testimony/Advocacy Statement

Based on the health-related bill you selected, complete the Legislation Comparison Grid Template. Be sure to address the following:

Determine the legislative intent of the bill you have reviewed.
Identify the proponents/opponents of the bill.
Identify the target populations addressed by the bill.
Where in the process is the bill currently? Is it in hearings or committees?
Is it receiving press coverage?

NRSE 6050 Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health

Week 4 Assignment

Assignment: Legislation Comparison Grid and Testimony/Advocacy Statement

As a nurse, how often have you thought to yourself, If I had anything to do about it, things would work a little differently? Increasingly, nurses are beginning to realize that they do, in fact, have a role and a voice.

Many nurses encounter daily experiences that motivate them to take on an advocacy role in hopes of impacting policies, laws, or regulations that impact healthcare issues of interest. Of course, doing so means entering the less familiar world of policy and politics. While many nurses do not initially feel prepared to operate in this space effectively, the reward is the opportunity to shape and influence future health policy. Assignment: Legislation Comparison Grid And Testimony/Advocacy Statement

To Prepare:

Select a bill that has been proposed (not one that has been enacted) using the congressional websites provided in the Learning Resources.

The Assignment: (1- to 2-page Comparison Grid; 1- to 2-page Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement)

Part 1: Legislation Comparison Grid

Based on the health-related bill (proposed, not enacted) you selected, complete the Legislation Comparison Grid Template. Be sure to address the following:

Determine the legislative intent of the bill you have reviewed.

Identify the proponents/opponents of the bill.

Identify the target populations addressed by the bill.

Where in the process is the bill currently? Is it in hearings or committees?

Is it receiving press coverage?

Part 2: Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement

Based on the health-related bill you selected, develop a 1- to 2-page Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement that addresses the following:

Advocate a position for the bill you selected and write testimony in support of your position.

Describe how you would address the opponent to your position. Be specific and provide examples.

Recommend at least one amendment to the bill in support of your position.

By Day 7 of Week 4

Submit your completed legislation comparison grid and testimony/advocacy statement.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.

Click the Week 4 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.

Click the Week 4 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.

Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.

If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.

Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

1 Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Chapter 3, “Government Response: Legislation” (pp. 37–56)
Chapter 10, “Overview: The Economics and Finance of Health Care” (pp. 180–183 only)

2 https://www.congress.gov/

3 Taylor, D., Olshansky, E., Fugate-Woods, N., Johnson-Mallard, V., Safriet, B. J., & Hagan, T. (2017). Corrigendum to position statement: Political interference in sexual and reproductive health research and health professional education. Nursing Outlook, 65(2), 346–350. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2017.05.003

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

4 https://www.house.gov/

5 https://www.senate.gov/

6 https://www.senate.gov/reference/org_chart.htm

Testimony/Advocacy Statement

            Good afternoon.  My name is Erin Littlepage, and today I will be discussing the importance of passing the H.R.4769 bill, also known as the Medicare Prescription Drug Savings and Choice Act of 2019.  Compared to other highly developed countries with decent healthcare, the United States has substantially higher prices for the cost of drugs.  There are many bills that have been introduced to the House of Representatives in order to combat these high prices that we as Americans face every day, and the Medicare Prescription Drug Savings and Choice Act of 2019 bill is especially important.

Under the current administration, as of December 18, 2019, Donald Trump has announced plans to allow states to purchase prescription medications from Canada to help lower the costs of Americans purchasing their medications.   The fact that our medications are so expensive, we must go to another country to purchase prescription drugs is a disturbing fact.  However, if the plan goes into action, the Medicare expenses will be lowered from state to state which would be a huge push in the right direction of lowering our prescription drug costs (Williams, 2019).

There are opponents to the bill, unfortunately.  Large drug companies must increase the prices of medications in order to make a profit for themselves.  This does not benefit the American consumer, however.  So many Americans fail to take their medications as prescribed by their provider because they do not have the money to pay for them.  I have worked on Medical Surgical units for my entire nursing career, and the amount of admissions and readmissions based on the mere fact that the patient cannot afford their drugs, and come in with acute symptoms that could be regulated with medication administration, is astounding.  While it appears as if the pharmaceutical companies will just continue increasing their drug prices, I think the only way to address these opponents is to have this bill and other bills related to drug pricing passed to Congress and have them take strong action to manage the issue.

An amendment I would propose in regard to this bill, is laid out in the Medicare Drug Price Negotiation act, which would allow the secretary of Health and Human Services to negotiate drug prices for drugs under Medicare.  This in turn, would lower drug prices.  Currently, the secretary of HHS is not permitted to negotiate on pricing so they must accept the numbers given by the pharmaceutical company.

In conclusion, the high prices of medications will continue to be an issue nationwide as long as Congress sits back and allows pharmaceutical companies to take advantage of innocent Americans.  The Medicare Prescription Drug Savings and Choice Act of 2019 will allow the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services to negotiate with pharmaceutical companies to keep pricing reasonable for drugs and offer alternatives medications that are of equal value, but of lower price.  These companies have time and time again shown their greed, and that a profit is more important than the life of American citizens.  This issue is long overdue to be solved and will continue until Congress takes a stand, starting with the passing of this bill and others related to the issue.

References

Pear, R. (2018, October 25). Trump Proposes to Lower Drug Prices by Basing Them on Other Countries’ Costs. Retrieved December 20, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/25/us/politics/medicare-prescription-drug-costs-trump.html.

Prescription drug prices rising despite Trump pressure on Big Pharma. (2018, September 24). Retrieved December 20, 2019, from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/prescription-drug-prices-rising-despite-trump-pressure-on-big-pharma/.

Schakowsky, J. D. (2019, October 21). H.R.4769 – 116th Congress (2019-2020): Medicare Prescription Drug Savings and Choice Act of 2019. Retrieved from https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/4769?q={“search”:[“prescription+drugs”]}&s=7&r=5.

Williams, L. (2019, December 18). Trump Plan Would Allow States To Buy Cheaper Prescription Drugs From Canada. Retrieved December 20, 2019, from https://www.ibtimes.com/trump-plan-would-allow-states-buy-cheaper-prescription-drugs-canada-2888113.

Rubric Detail

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Content
Name: NURS_6050_Module02_Week04_Assignment_Rubric

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Excellent Good Fair Poor
Federal and State Legislation

Part 1: Legislation Comparison Grid

Based on the health-related bill you selected, complete the Legislation Comparison Grid Template. Be sure to address the following:

• Determine the legislative intent of the bill you have reviewed.
• Identify the proponents/opponents of the bill.
• Identify the target populations addressed by the bill.
• Where in the process is the bill currently? Is it in hearings or committees?
• Is it receiving press coverage?
Points Range: 32 (32%) – 35 (35%)
The response clearly and accurately summarizes in detail the legislative intent of the health-related bill.

The response accurately identifies in detail the proponents and opponents of the health-related bill.

The response accurately identifies in detail the populations targeted by the health-related bill.

The response clearly and thoroughly describes in detail the current status of the health-related bill.

Points Range: 28 (28%) – 31 (31%)
The response accurately summarizes the legislative intent of the health-related bill.

The response accurately identifies the proponents and opponents of the health-related bill.

The response accurately identifies the populations targeted by the health-related bill.

The response accurately describes the current status of the health-related bill.

Points Range: 25 (25%) – 27 (27%)
The response vaguely or inaccurately summarizes the legislative intent of the health-related bill.

The response vaguely or inaccurately identifies the proponents and opponents of the health-related bill.

The response vaguely or inaccurately identifies the populations targeted by the health-related bill.

The response vaguely or inaccurately describes the current status of the health-related bill.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 24 (24%)
Summary of the legislative intent of the health-related bill is vague and inaccurate or is missing.

Identification of the proponents and opponents of the health-related bill are vague and inaccurate or is missing.

Identification of the populations targeted by the health-related bill is vague and inaccurate or is missing.

The description of the current status of the health-related bill is vague and inaccurate or is missing.
Advocating for Legislation

Part 2: Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement

Based on the health-related bill you selected, develop a 1- to 2-page Legislation Testimony/Advocacy Statement that addresses the following:

• Advocate a position for the bill you selected and write testimony in support of your position.
• Describe how you would address the opponent to your position. Be specific and provide examples.
• Recommend at least one amendment to the bill in support of your position.
Points Range: 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)
Testimony clearly and thoroughly provides statements that fully justifies a position for a health-related bill.

Response provides a detailed, thorough, and logical explanation of how to address opponents to the position for the health-related bill and includes one or more clear and accurate supporting examples.

A complete, detailed, and specific synthesis of two outside resources is provided. The response fully integrates at least 2 outside resources and 2-3 course specific resources that fully supports the responses provided.

The response accurately and thoroughly recommends at least one amendment to the bill that fully supports the position.

Points Range: 40 (40%) – 44 (44%)
Testimony clearly and accurately provides statements that somewhat justifies a position for a health-related bill.

Response provides an accurate explanation of how to address opponents to the position for the health-related bill and may include at least one supporting example.

An accurate synthesis of at least one outside resource is provided. The response integrates at least 1 outside resource and 2-3 course specific resources that may support the responses provided.

The response accurately recommends at least one amendment to the bill that may support the position.

Points Range: 35 (35%) – 39 (39%)
Testimony used to justify a position for a health-related bill is vague or inaccurate.

Explanation of how to address the opponents to the position for the health-related bill is vague or inaccurate, lacks logic, and/or the supporting examples are vague or inaccurate.

A vague or inaccurate synthesis of outside resources is provided. The response minimally integrates resources that may support the responses provided.

The recommendation of an amendment to the bill in support of the position is inaccurate or incomplete.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 34 (34%)
Testimony used to justify a position for a health-related bill is vague and inaccurate, incomplete, or is missing.

Explanation of how to address the opponents to the position for the health-related bill is vague and inaccurate, or is missing.

A vague and inaccurate synthesis of no outside resources is provided, or is missing. The response fails to integrate any resources to support the responses provided.

The recommendation of an amendment to the bill in support of the position is inaccurate and incomplete, or is missing.
Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:

Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction is provided which delineates all required criteria.
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity.

A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion is provided which delineates all required criteria.

Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment is stated, yet is brief and not descriptive.

Points Range: 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%- 79% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment is vague or off topic.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time. No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion was provided. Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%) Contains a few (1-2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. Points Range: 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%) Contains several (3-4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%) Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding. Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Uses correct APA format with no errors. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%) Contains a few (1-2) APA format errors. Points Range: 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%) Contains several (3-4) APA format errors. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%) Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors. Total Points: 100 Name: NURS_6050_Module02_Week04_Assignment_Rubric An Introduction to Health Policy and Law Program Transcript JOEL TEITELBAUM: Politics plays a huge role in the development and implementation of health policy. NARRATOR: Joel Teitelbaum is the associate professor and vice chair for academic affairs in the Department of Health Policy at the George Washington University. He’s also the school’s director of the Hirsch Health Law and Policy program. Professor Teitelbaum co-authored The Essentials of Health Policy and Law for students studying law and policy as a component of their public health studies. As a university professor and an academic lawyer, Joel has influenced health policy and the policymaking process. JOEL TEITELBAUM: Two of the three branches of government are by intent by design political. So the executive branch and the legislative branch, the two branches of government that are tasked with designing and implementing health policy and laws, are by their design political, because we elect them. They’re imbued with power as a result of federal and state elections. So you from that starting point, you have to understand that anything that goes in the policy making and the legal process is going to be political. The Affordable Care Act, for example, passed without any Republicans signatures. And you can see, after it was passed and it’s being implemented that fully half of the states, most of them led by either Republican governors or legislatures, are actively challenging or ignoring the law. So it’s clear that obviously politics is playing a very important role in both the design at the outset and now the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Over the past century or so, there have been many examples of important health policies that have really changed the delivery of public health services in this country. I think a good starting point is with the Public Health Service Act in 1944, which at that point consolidated a lot of the health policies that were in existence and greatly expanded the role of the Public Health Service. From there, you can look to the 1960s when we had the passage of Medicare and Medicaid, which of course gave health insurance and really did a lot to improve the public health for the elderly and for the disadvantaged and poor. The Community Health Center program, which has really influenced public health, was passed in 1965, was when the first health center opened. From there, you can look at the Affordable Care Act of course in 2010. I think the Affordable Care Act has very much influenced the notion of health care as either a right or a privilege. I think it has taken us further away from the idea of health care as a privilege and closer to the idea of health care as a right. Now, the way that the Affordable Care Act mainly did this was through the creation and the regulation of new health insurance markets. And there is clearly not a one to one correlation between having health insurance and health care as a right, because even with health insurance, there’s no guarantee that someone will get quality health care or any health care at all if they can’t access it. But I do you think that the Affordable Care Act has played a large role in helping the country move toward understanding that what it means to have an equitable and fair health care system means having access to insurance which then in many cases will then lead you to health care access. Even after implementation of the Affordable Care Act, there’s going to be 10s of millions of people without insurance. So the idea that we’re somehow close even to universal insurance leading towards a right is still pretty far away. My experience in influencing health policy I think I can talk about in two different ways. The first is what I have learned about what it means to be a health policy advocate or influential health policy maker or someone who can help influence the design of health policy. Broadly speaking, I think you have to have a lot of stamina, you have to be a very good team player understand that no one individual given the multifaceted nature of health policy making can have as great an influence as they can if they’re working with, say, lawyers and economists and others. I think you have to have a fertile political environment, because again, as we’ve seen, something like the Affordable Care Act barely even passed even though it is something we’ve been working toward for many, many decades in this country. In terms of my own experience, my role in thinking about health policy and law and the research and teaching and writing that I’ve done has spanned several topical areas. I started off working on behavioral health care issues in law and policy– so substance abuse and mental health issues. That transformed into work around managed care law and policy, which then morphed into an interest that I brought the job which was health care civil rights, and after that into health care reform and i

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