Assignment: Clostridium and Streptocaccus
Assignment: Clostridium and Streptocaccus
Clostridium and Streptocaccus Assignment: Clostridium and Streptocaccus are both catalase-negative while Streptocaccus grows by fermentation. Therefore, why ca
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS
Discussion Questions (DQ)
- Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, including a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
- Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
- One or two-sentence responses, simple statements of agreement, or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
- I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
- Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
- In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
- Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
- Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality
- Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
- Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
- I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
- I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’s level and deduct points accordingly.
- As Masters’s level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
- It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
- Assignment: Clostridium and Streptocaccus For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
- Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
- Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
- Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
- The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
- Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
- If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
- I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
- As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
- Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
- Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
- Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.
Clostridium is killed by oxygen, but Streptococcus can survive it.
Clostridium difficile is a common opportunistic infection that can cause mild to severe colitis, particularly in the elderly and those who are taking antibiotics. 1,2 The global emergence of strains (e.g., ribotypes 027, 078) with genomic changes resulting in high-level fluoroquinolone resistance and likely increases in virulence capability is partly to blame for the rise in C. difficile-associated morbidity. C. difficile fluoroquinolone resistance, according to one study, contributes to more severe inflammation. 4 Although antibiotics are still the most cost-effective treatment option for C. difficile infection, they have been linked to an increased risk of recurrence. 1
The use of probiotic microbes to treat a variety of GI illnesses has grown in recent years. Several randomized controlled trials have been described in this vein, with the goal of avoiding AAD (and C. difficle) through probiotic administration. Several trials have shown that probiotic organisms are effective in the prevention of AAD and CDI. 5,6 In at least two of the studies, the use of probiotic preparations resulted in a 20% reduction in the incidence of AAD and C. difficile. 6,7 To date, Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacteria spp., or Sacchromyces boulardii have been used to treat patients in the majority of AAD-related clinical trials. Streptococcus thermophilus, a potentially probiotic bacteria, was discovered in only one study in a commercial yogurt drink. The most common dose used in probiotic research is 7 1010 viable organisms. This dose is most likely derived from lactobacilli and S. thermophilus concentrations in fermented dairy products of 108 cfu/mL. (such as yogurt). Approximately 1010 organisms are consumed when 100 mL of yogurt is consumed (personal communication with Dr. M.E. Sanders).
The use of probiotics for the treatment of AAD has resulted in small but significant reductions in the overall incidence of AAD and probable C. difficile infection in clinical studies, according to Assignment: Clostridium and Streptococcus; however, the mechanisms underlying the findings are still unknown.
6,7 A probiotic approach may be contraindicated based on an individual’s health situation; however, the criteria for deciding which probiotics should be delivered to which individuals are unclear. 8 As a result, in vivo systems provide a means to learn whether probiotic organisms provide host benefits in specific disease states, as well as the mechanisms by which these benefits are conferred. Furthermore, in vivo systems are an excellent tool for determining safety profiles within a host.
The current study employs a mouse model to investigate the use of S. thermophilus as a preventative strategy for antibiotic-induced C. difficile disease; companion studies were conducted to identify the S. thermophilus factor(s) responsible for observed differences.